Был ли капитализм? Анализ русской языковой среды в XIX и XX веках с помощью больших данных | Южно-российский журнал социальных наук
Был ли капитализм? Анализ русской языковой среды в XIX и XX веках с помощью больших данных
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Рот С., Трофимов Н.А., Мкртичян А.Е. Был ли капитализм? Анализ русской языковой среды в XIX и XX веках с помощью больших данных // Южно-российский журнал социальных наук. 2018. Т. 19, №2. С. 6-26.
Дата поступления 2018-01-20
Дата принятия 2018-02-25
Дата публикации 2018-06-07

Copyright (c) 2018 Стеффен Рот, Николай Александрович Трофимов, Артур Ервандович Мкртичян

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Это произведение доступно по лицензии Creative Commons «Attribution» («Атрибуция») 4.0 Всемирная.

Аннотация

Изучение социальных трансформаций будущего и будущего социальных трансформаций зависит от релевантности нашего знания о современности и прошлом. Целью нашего исследования является изучение эволюции ключевых концептов социальной дифференциации, отраженных в русскоязычной книгопечатной коммуникации. Основной задачей является тестирование гипотез о правдоподобности описания русской языковой среды в терминах политизации, секуляризации, медиатизации (информатизации) и доминирования функциональной системы экономики и капитализма как одной из форм описания этого доминирования в период 1800–2000 гг. В ходе нашего исследования мы использовали графический инструмент Google Ngram Viewer, позволяющий в режиме реального времени отображать временные ряды (графики) нормализованной по количеству книг, опубликованных в течение каждого календарного года, относительной частоты встречаемости n-грамм, в том числе слов и словосочетаний, в крупнейшей в мире диахронической языковой базе данных оцифрованных книг (размеченных текстов) Google Books. С помощью Google Ngram Viewer мы составили графики комбинированных нормализованных частот встречаемости ключевых русских слов, относящихся к 10 различным функциональным системам русскоязычной среды. Результаты исследования подтверждают нарастающую функциональную дифференциацию, сильную политизацию, ярко выраженную секуляризацию и сциентификацию русскоязычной коммуникации, отраженной в книгопечатном дискурсе. В то же время отмечается, что экономика была маргинальной функциональной системой до революции. Несмотря на выявленное укрепление позиций экономики после революции и обнаружение относительного апогея влиятельности этой функциональной системы в 50–80-е гг. XX в., отсутствие достоверных данных о доминировании функциональной системы экономики противоречит распространенным на уровне здравого смысла и запечатленным в литературе политэкономии и социализма утверждениям о макро-социальных проявлениях капитализма в России в период с 1800 по 2000 г.

Ключевые слова

культуромика, секуляризация, Google Ngram Viewer, социальные системы, Луман, перформативность

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